Recent publications from members of WinterNet


Makoto, K., Kawakami, T. (2019) Earthworms under 1 m of snow: the seasonal dynamics of earthworm abundance in cool-temperate forests with heavy snowfall. Edaphologia. 105: 15-23.

Makoto, K., Bryanin, S.V., Takagi, K. (2019) The effect of snow reduction and Eisenia japonica earthworm traits on soil nitrogen dynamics in spring in a cool-temperate forest. Applied Soil Ecology. 144: 1-7.


Alexander JM, Chalmandrier L, Lenoir J, Burgess TL, Essl F, Haider S, Kueffer C, McDougall, K, Milbau A, Nunez MA, Pauchard A, Rabitsch W, Rew LR, Sanders N. & Pellissier L (2018). Lags in the response of alpine plant communities to climate change. Global Change Biology 24, 563–579.

Bjerke JW, Elvebakk A & Tømmervik H. (2018). Alpine garden plants from six continents show high vulnerability to ice encasement. Norwegian Journal of Geography, 72: 57–64, doi: 10.1080/00291951.2017.1391876.

Domisch T, Martz F, Repo T, Rautio P. (2018) Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions, Tree Physiology,

Gehrmann F, Hänninen, H, Liu Ch, Saarinen T (2018). Phenological responses to small-scale spatial variation in snowmelt timing reveal compensatory and conservative strategies in subarctic-alpine plants. Plant Ecology and Diversity

Krab, E.J., Rönnefarth, J., Becher, M., Blume-Werry, G., Keuper, F., Klaminder, J., Kreyling, J., Makoto, K., Milbau, A., Dorrepaal, E. (2018) Winter warming effects on tundra shrub performance are species-specific and dependent on spring conditions. Journal of Ecology 106: 599–612. doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12872.

Lett, S., Wardle, D.A., Nilsson, M.C., Teuber, L.M., Dorrepaal, E. (2018) The role of bryophytes for tree seedling responses to winter climate change: implications for the stress gradient hypothesis. Journal of Ecology doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12898.


Bjerke JW, Bokhorst S, Callaghan TV & Phoenix GK (2017). Persistent reduction of segment growth and photosynthesis in a widespread and important sub-Arctic moss species after cessation of three years of experimental winter warming. Functional Ecology, 31: 127–134, doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12703.

Bjerke JW, Treharne R, Vikhamar-Schuler D, Karlsen SR, Ravolainen V, Bokhorst S, Phoenix GK, Bochenek Z & Tømmervik H. (2017). Understanding the drivers of extensive plant damage in boreal and Arctic ecosystems: Insights from field surveys in the aftermath of damage. Science of the Total Environment, 599-600: 1965–1976, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.050.

Blume-Werry G, Jansson R & Milbau A. (2017) Root phenology unresponsive to earlier snowmelt despite advanced aboveground phenology in two subarctic plant communities. Functional Ecology, 31: 1493-1502

Christiansen, C. T., Haugwitz, M. S., Priemé, A., Nielsen, C. S., Elberling, B., Michelsen, A., Grogan, P. and Blok, D. (2017). Enhanced summer warming reduces fungal decomposer diversity and litter mass loss more strongly in dry than in wet tundra. Global Change Biology, 23: 406–420

Epstein HE, Bhatt U S, Raynolds MK, Walker DA, Forbes BC, Macias-Fauria M, Martin A, Phoenix G, Bjerke J, Tømmervik H, Fauchald P, Vickers H, Myneni R, Dickerson C (2017) Tundra Greenness. In: Arctic Report Card 2017 (eds Richter-Menge J, Overland JE, Mathis JT, Osborne E). NOAA, Silver Spring, MD.

Klein G, Vitasse Y, Rixen C, Marty C, Rebetez M (2017) Shorter snow cover duration since 1970 in the Swiss Alps due to earlier snowmelt more than to later snow onset. Climatic Change DOI 10.1007/s10584-016-1806-y

Mayor JR, Sanders NJ, Classen AT, Bardgett RD, Clément JC, Fajardo A, Lavorel S, Sundqvist MK, Bahn M, Chisholm C, Cieraad E, Gedalof Z, Grigulis K, Kudo G, Oberski DL, Wardle DA (2017). Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally. Nature 542, 91–95.

Milbau A, Vandeplas N, Kockelbergh F & Nijs I (2017) Both seed germination and seedling mortality increase with experimental warming and fertilization in a subarctic tundra. AoB Plants. 9. doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plx040

Olsen AKB, Bjerke JW & Tombre I (2017) Yield reductions in agricultural grasslands in Norway after springtime grazing by pink-footed geese. Journal of Applied Ecology 54 (6): 1836–1846, doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12914.

Rydsaa JH, Stordal F, Bryn A & Tallaksen LM (2017) Effects of shrub and tree cover increase on the near-surface atmosphere in northern Fennoscandia. Biogeosciences 14: 4209-2017​

Prevéy J, Vellend M, Rüger N, Hollister RD, Bjorkman AD, Myers-Smith IH, Elmendorf SC, Clark K, Cooper EJ, Elberling B, Fosaa AM, Henry GHR, Høye TT, Jónsdóttir IS, Klanderud K, Lévesque E, Mauritz M, Molau U, Natali SM, Oberbauer SF, Panchen ZA, Post E, Rumpf SB, Schmidt NM, Schuur EAG, Semenchuk PR, Troxler T, Welker JM and Rixen C. (2017). Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites: implications for convergence across northern latitudes. Global Change Biology, 23: 2660–2671. doi:10.1111/gcb.13619

Schollert M, Kivimäenpää M, Michelsen A, Blok D, and Rinnan R (2017) Leaf anatomy, BVOC emission and CO2 exchange of arctic plants following snow addition and summer warming. Annals of Botany, 19: 433-445

Trager S, Milbau A & Wilson SD (2017) Potential contributions of root decomposition to the nitrogen cycle in arctic forest and tundra. Ecology and Evolution. 7: 11021-11032

Väisänen, M., Krab, E.J., Dorrepaal, E. (2017) Carbon dynamics at frost-patterned tundra driven by long-term vegetation change rather than by short-term non-growing season warming. Biogeochemistry 136: 103-117.

Zagajewski B, Tømmervik H, Bjerke JW, Razko E, Bochenek Z, Kłos A, Jarocińska A, Lavender S. & Ziółkowski D. (2017). Intraspecific differences in spectral reflectance curves as indicators of reduced vitality in High-Arctic plants. Remote Sensing, 9: 1289, 18 s., doi: 10.3390/rs9121289.


Albon SD, Irvine RJ, Halvorsen O, Langvatn R, Loe LE, Ropstad E, Veiberg V, Van der Wal R, Bjørkvoll EM, Duff EI, Hansen BB, Lee AM, Tveraa T & Stien A (2016) Contrasting effects of summer and winter warming on body mass explain population dynamics in a food-limited Arctic herbivore. Global Change Biology

Anderson HB, Speed JDM, Madsen J, Pedersen ÅØ, Tombre I & Van der Wal R (2016) Late snow melt moderates herbivore disturbance of the Arctic tundra. Ecoscience 23: 29-39.

Anderson, H.B., Nilsen. L., Tømmervik, H., Karlsen, S. R., Nagai, S. and Cooper E.J. (2016). Using ordinary digital cameras in place of near-infrared sensors to derive vegetation indices for phenology studies of High Arctic vegetation. Remote Sensing, 8, 847; doi:10.3390/rs8100847

Bjerke J.W., Bokhorst S., Callaghan T.V. & Phoenix G.K. (2016) Persistent reduction of segment growth and photosynthesis in a widespread and important sub-Arctic moss species after cessation of three years of experimental winter warming. Functional Ecology, doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12703.

Blanc-Betes E, Welker JM., Sturchio NC, Chanton JP, Gonzalez-Meler MA (2016) Winter precipitation and snow accumulation drive the methane sink or source strength of Arctic tussock tundra. Global Change Biology. 22, 2818–2833

Blok D, Elberling B, and Michelsen A (2016). Initial stages of tundra shrub litter decomposition may be accelerated by deeper winter snow but slowed down by spring warming. Ecosystems 19, 155–169.

Blume-Werry G, Wilson SD, Kreyling J & Milbau A (2016). Short-term climate change manipulation effects do not scale up to long-term legacies: Effects of an absent snow cover on boreal forest plants. Journal of Ecology. 104: 1638-1648

Bokhorst S, Convey P, Huiskes A, Aerts R. (2016) Usnea antarctica, an important Antarctic lichen, is vulnerable to aspects of regional environmental change. Polar Biology. 39, 511-21.

Bokhorst S., Pedersen S.H., Brucker L., Anisimov O., Bjerke J.W., Brown R.D., Ehrich D., Essery R.L.H., Heilig A., Ingvander S., Johansson C., Johansson M., Jónsdóttir I.S., Niila I., Luojus K., Macelloni G., Mariash H., McLennan D., Rosqvist G.N., Sato A., Savela H., Schneebeli M., Sokolov A., Sokratov S.A., Terzago S., Vikhamar-Schuler D., Williamson S.N., Qiu Y. & Callaghan T.V. (2016) Changing Arctic snow cover: A review of recent developments and assessment of future needs for observations, modelling and impacts. Ambio 45 (5): 516–537

Dalmannsdottir S, Rapacz M, Jørgensen M, Østrem L, Larsen A, Rødven R, Rognli OA. (2015) Temperature before Cold Acclimation Affects Cold Tolerance and Photoacclimation in Timothy (Phleum pratense L.), Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and Red Clover (Trifolium pratense L.). J Agro Crop Sci, 202: 320–330

Epstein HE, Bhatt U S, Raynolds MK, Walker DA, Forbes BC, Macias-Fauria M, Loranty M, Phoenix G, Bjerke J (2016) Tundra Greenness. In: Arctic Report Card 2016 (eds Richter-Menge J, Overland JE, Mathis JT). NOAA, Silver Spring, MD.

Ferrari A, Hagedorn F, Niklaus PA (2016): Experimental soil warming and cooling alters the partitioning of recent assimilates: evidence from a 14C-labelling study at the alpine treeline. Oecologia 180, 257-264.

Foster, A., Jones D.L., Cooper E.J., and Roberts. P. (2016). Freeze-thaw cycles have minimal effect on the mineralisation of low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon in arctic soils. Polar Biology. 39, 2387–2401

Gillespie, M.A.K, Baggesen, N.S. and Cooper, E.J. (2016) High Arctic flowering phenology and plant-pollinator interactions in response to delayed snow melt and simulated warming Environmental Research Letters, 11, 115006

Jusselme MD, Saccone P, Zinger L, Faure M, Guillaumaud N, Clément JC, Poly F (2016) Variations in snow depth modify N-related soil microbial abundances and functioning during winter in subalpine grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 92: 27-37

Leffler AJ, Klein E, Oberbauer S and Welker JM (2016). Coupled long-term summer warming and deeper snow alters species composition and stimulates gross primary productivity in tussock tundra. Oecologia 181, 287-297

Lembrechts, J. J., Pauchard, A., Lenoir, J., Nunez, M. A., Geron, C., Ven, A., Bravo-Monasterio, P., Teneb, E., Nijs, I. & Milbau, A Disturbance is the key to plant invasions in cold environments (2016) Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences, 113: 14061-14066

Lindwall F, Schollert M, Michelsen A, Blok D and Rinnan R (2016). Fourfold higher tundra volatile emissions due to arctic summer warming. J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci. 121, 2015JG003295.

Little CJ, Wheeler JA, Sedlacek J, Cortés AJ, Rixen C (2016) Small-scale drivers: the importance of nutrient availability and snowmelt timing on performance of the alpine shrub Salix herbacea. Oecologia 180: 1015-1024

Livensperger C, Steltzer H, Darrouzet-Nardi A, Sullivan PF, Wallenstein M, Weintraub MN, (2016) Earlier snowmelt and warming lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth. Aob Plants doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plw021

Malnes E., Karlsen S.R., Johansen B., Bjerke J.W. & Tømmervik H. (2016) Snow season variability in a boreal-Arctic transition area monitored by MODIS data. Environmental Research Letters, 11 125005

Martz F, Vuosku J, Ovaskainen A, Stark S & Rautio, P (2016). The snow must go on: ground ice encasement, snow compaction and absence of snow variably cause soil hypoxia, CO2 accumulation and tree seedling damage in boreal forest. PLoS ONE 11(6): e0156620.

Milner JM, Øystein V, van der Wal R, Brage Bremset, H (2016) Experimental icing affects growth, mortality, and flowering in a high Arctic dwarf shrub. Ecology and Evolution 6: 2139–2148

Morgado L, Semenova T, Welker JM, Walker M, Smets E. and Geml J (2016). Long-term increase in snow depth leads to compositional changes in arctic ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Global Change Biology 22, 3080–3096

Moser JG, Oberbauer SF, Sternberg Lda S, Ellsworth PZ, Starr G, Mortazavi B, Olivas PC (2016) Water uptake of Alaskan tundra evergreens during the winter-spring transition. American Journal of Botany 103: 298-306.

Mundra, S., Halvorsen, R., Kauserud, H., Bahram, M., Tedersoo, L., Elberling, B., Cooper, E.J., and Bronken Eidesen, P., (2016). Ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi respond differently to long-term experimentally increased snow depth in the High Arctic. Environmental Microbiology 5, 856-869

Mundra S, Bahram M, Tedersoo L, et al. (2015) Temporal variation of Bistorta vivipara-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the High Arctic. Molecular Ecology, 24: 6289–6302

Phoenix, G.K., Bjerke, J.W., 2016. Arctic browning: extreme events and trends reversing arctic greening. Global Change Biology, 22: 2960–2962

Puntsag T, Mitchell MJ, Campbell JL, Klein ES, Likens GE, Welker JM (2016) Arctic Vortex changes alter the sources and isotopic values of precipitation in northeastern US Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 22647 doi:10.1038/srep22647

Ricketts M. P., Poretsky, R. S., Welker, J. M., and Gonzalez-Meler, M. A. (2016) Soil bacterial community and functional shifts in response to thermal insulation in moist acidic tundra of Northern Alaska. SOIL doi:10.5194/soil-2015-89.

Riseth J.Å., Tømmervik H. & Bjerke J.W. (2016) 175 years of adaptation: North-Scandinavian Sámi reindeer herding between governmental policies and winter climate variability (1835-2010). Journal of Forest Economics 24: 186–204.

Sedlacek J, Cortés AJ, Wheeler JA, Bossdorf O , Hoch G, Klápště J, Lexer C, Rixen C, Wipf S, Karrenberg S, van Kleunen M (2016) Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats. Ecology and Evolution 6: 3940–3952

Semenchuk, P.R., Christiansen C.T., Grogan P., Elberling, B. and Cooper, E.J. (2016) Long-term experimentally deepened snow decreases growing season respiration in a low and high arctic tundra ecosystem. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 5, 1236-1248

Vitasse Y, Rebetez M, Filippa G, Cremonese E, Klein G, Rixen C. (2016). ‘Hearing’ alpine plants growing after snowmelt: ultrasonic snow sensors provide long-term series of alpine plant phenology. Int J Biometeorol DOI 10.1007/s00484-016-1216-x

Vikhamar-Schuler D., Isaksen K., Haugen J.E., Tømmervik H., Luks B., Schuler T.V. & Bjerke J.W. (2016). Changes in winter warming events in the Nordic Arctic Region. Journal of Climate 29: 6223–6244

Wheeler JA, Cortés AJ, Sedlacek J, Karrenberg S, van Kleunen M, Wipf S, Hoch G, Bossdorf O & Rixen C (2016) The snow and the willows: Accelerated spring snowmelt reduces performance in the low-lying alpine shrub Salix herbacea. Journal of Ecology, 104: 1041–1050

Wrona FJ, Johansson M, Culp JM, Jenkins A, Mård J, Myers-Smith IH, Prowse TD, Vincent WF, Wookey PA (2016), Transitions in Arctic ecosystems: Ecological implications of a changing hydrological regime, J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci., 121, 650–674

Zona D, Gioli B, Commane R, Lindaas J, Wofsy SC, Miller CE, Dinardo SJ, Dengel S, Sweeney C, Karion A, Chang RY-W, Henderson JM, Murphy PC, Goodrich J, Moreaux V, Liljedahl A, Watts JD, Kimball JS, Lipson DA, Oechel WC (2016). Cold season emissions dominate the Arctic tundra methane budget. PNAS 113, 40–45.


Bjerke JW, Tømmervik H, Zielke M, Jørgensen M (2015) Impacts of snow season on ground-ice accumulation, soil frost and primary productivity in a grassland of sub-Arctic Norway. Environmental Research Letters 10: 095007, 14 pp. DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/10/9/095007.

Bjerke JW, Tømmervik H. (2015) Less plant biomass of northern lands with increasing frequency of climate change-induced stress events? Fram Forum 2015: 18–19.

Blok D, Weijers S, Welker, JM, Cooper EJ, Michelsen A, Löffler J, and Bo Elberling (2015). Deepened winter snow increases stem growth and alters stem δ 13 C and δ 15 N in evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona in high-arctic Svalbard tundra. Environ. Res. Lett. 10, 044008.

Bokhorst S, Phoenix GK, Berg MP, Callaghan TV, Kirby-Lambert C, Bjerke JW (2015). Climatic and biotic extreme events moderate long-term responses of above- and belowground sub-Arctic heathland communities to climate change. Global Change Biology, DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13007.

Lund M, Bjerke JW, Drake B, Engelsen O, Hansen G, Parmentier F-J, Powell T, Silvennoinen H, Sottocornola M, Tømmervik H, Weldon S & Rasse D (2015): Low impact of dry conditions on the CO2 exchange of a northern-Norwegian blanket bog. Environmental Research Letters 10: 025004, 13 pp. DOI: 10.1088/48-9326/10/2/025004.

Franke, A., Aatsinki, P., Hallikainen, V., Huhta, E., Hyppönen, M., Juntunen, V., Mikkola, K., Neuvonen, S. & Rautio, P. 2015: Changes of the coniferous forest line in Finnish Lapland during 1983-2009. Silva Fennica 49(4): article id 1408.

Nauta AL, Heijmans MMPD, BlokD, Limpens J, Elberling B, Gallagher A, Li B, Petrov RE, Maximov TC, van Huissteden, J, Berendse F (2015). Permafrost collapse after shrub removal shifts tundra ecosystem to a methane source. Nature Climate Change 5, 67–70.

Palacio S, Lenz A, Wipf S, Hoch G & Rixen C (2015) Bud freezing resistance in alpine shrubs across snow depth gradients. Environmental and Experimental Botany 118, 95–101.

Sedlacek J, Wheeler JA, Cortés AJ, Bossdorf O, Hoch G, Lexer C, Wipf S, Karrenberg S, van Kleunen M & Rixen C (2015) The response of the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea to altered snowmelt timing: lessons from a multi-site transplant experiment. PLOS ONE 10(4): e0122395. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122395.

Soininen EM, Jensvoll I, Killengreen ST, Ims RA (2015) Under the snow: a new camera trap opens the white box of subnivean ecology. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation. doi: 10.1002/rse2.2

Sullivan PF, Ellison SBZ, McNown RW, Brownlee AH, Sveinbjörnsson B (2015). Evidence of soil nutrient availability as the proximate constraint on growth of treeline trees in northwest Alaska. Ecology 96: 716–727

Tømmervik H., Bjerke JW, Karlsen SR, Storvold R, Thuestad A, Johansen B, Høgda KA. (2015) Monitoring human and climate change-induced plant stress in the Nordic Arctic Region and Svalbard using remote sensing and field surveys. Brief Report Series (Norwegian Polar Institute) 32: 50–53.

Wheeler JA, Schnider F, Sedlacek J, Cortés AJ, Wipf S, Hoch G & Rixen C (2015) With a little help from my friends: community facilitation for the dwarf shrub Salix herbacea under climate change. Basic and Applied Ecology 16(3), 202–209.

Wipf S, Sommerkorn M, Stutter MI, Jasper Wubs ER, van der Wal R (2015) Snow cover, freeze-thaw, and the retention of nutrients in an oceanic mountain ecosystem. Ecosphere 6:art207.


Bjerke, Jarle W., Stein Rune Karlsen, Kjell Arild Høgda, Eirik Malnes, Jane U. Jepsen, Sarah Lovibond, Dagrun Vikhamar-Schuler, and Hans Tømmervik. 2014. ‘Record-Low Primary Productivity and High Plant Damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 Caused by Multiple Weather Events and Pest Outbreaks’. Environmental Research Letters 9 (8): 084006. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/8/084006.

Bokhorst S, Wardle DA. (2014) Snow fungi as a food source for micro-arthropods. European Journal of Soil Biology 60: 77-80.

Convey, P., Abbandonato, H.D.A., Bergan, F., Beumer, L.T., Biersma, E.M., Bråthen, V.S., D'Imperio, L., Jensen, C.K., Nilsen, S., Paquin, K., Stenkewitz, U., Svoen, M.E., Winkler, J., Müller, E. and Coulson, S.J. (2014). Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by Arctic soil invertebrates. Journal of Thermal Biology DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2014.07.009

Cooper E.J. (2014) Warmer shorter winters disrupt arctic terrestrial ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 2014. 45:271–95

Cornelissen, J.H.C. & K. Makoto (2014). Winter climate change, plant traits and nutrient and carbon cycling in cold biomes. Ecological Research 29; 517-527.

Cortés, A. J., S. Waeber, C. Lexer, J. Sedlacek, J. Wheeler, M. van Kleunen, O. Bossdorf, G. Hoch, C. Rixen, S. Wipf, and S. Karrenberg (2014) Small-scale patterns in snowmelt timing affect genetic diversity and gene flow in the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea. Heredity. 113: 233–239.

Korup O. and Rixen, C. (2014) Soil erosion and organic carbon export by wet snow avalanches. The Cryosphere 8, 651–658.

Hagedorn F, Shiyatov SG, Mazepa VS, Devi NM, Grigor’ev A, Bartish AA, Fomin VV, Kapralov DS, Terent’ev M, Bugmann H, Rigling A, Moiseev PA (2014) Treeline advances along the Ural mountain range – driven by improved winter conditions? Global Change Biology doi:10.1111/gcb.12613

Lupascu, M., Welker, J. M., Xu, X. and Czimczik, C. I. (2014) Winter snow depth affects the sources and ages of CO2 emissions from a NW Greenland High Arctic polar semi-desert. Biogeoscience Discussion -on line BG

Makoto, K. T. Kajimoto, L. Koyama, G. Kudo, H. Shibata, Y. Yanai & J.H.C. Cornelissen (2014). Winter climate change in plant–soil systems: summary of recent findings and future perspectives. Ecological Research 29: 593-606.

Meijer zu Schlochtern, M, C. Rixen, S. Wipf & J.H.C. Cornelissen (2014). Management, winter climate and plant-soil feedbacks on ski slopes: a synthesis. Ecological Research 29: 583-592.

Onipchenko, V.G., A.M. Kipkeev, M.I. Makarov, A.D. Kozhevnikova, V.B. Ivanov, N.A. Soudzilovskaia, D.K. Tekeev, F.S. Salpagarova, M.J.A. Werger & Johannes H. C. Cornelissen (2014). Digging deep to open the white black box of snow root phenology. Ecological Research 29: 529-534.

Østrem L, Rapacz M, Larsen A, Dalmannsdottir S, Jørgensen M, 2014. Influences of growth cessation and photoacclimation on winter survival of non-native Lolium-Festuca grasses in high-latitude regions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 111 (2014) 21–31; DOI: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2014.10.008

Pattison, R., and Welker, J. M. (2014) Differential ecophysiological response of deciduous shrubs and a graminoid to long-term snow reductions and additions in moist acidic tundra, Northern Alaska. Oecologia 174, 339-350

Preece C & Phoenix GK (2014) Impact of early and late winter icing events on sub-arctic dwarf shrubs. Plant Biology: 125-132

Rapacz, M., Ergon, Å., Höglind M., Jørgensen, M., Jurczyk B., Østrem, L., Rognli, O. A., Tronsmo, A. M. (2014) Overwintering of herbaceous plants in a changing climate. Still more questions than answers. Plant Science 225: 34–44

Rumpf SB, Semenchuk PR, Dullinger S, Cooper EJ (2014) Idiosyncratic responses of High Arctic plants to changing snow regimes. PLoS ONE 9: e86281. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086281

Saccone P., Morin S., Baptist F., Bonneville J.M., Colace M.P., Domine F., Faure M., Geremia R., Lochet J., Poly F., Lavorel S. & Clément J.C. (2013) The effects of snowpack properties and plant strategies on litter decomposition during winter in subalpine meadows. Plant Soil 363:215-229

Wheeler, J., G. Hoch, A. J. Cortés, J. Sedlacek, S. Wipf, and C. Rixen (2014) Increased spring freezing vulnerability for alpine shrubs under early snowmelt. Oecologia. 175:219–229


Bjerke JW, Bokhorst S, Callaghan TV, Zielke M, Phoenix GK (2013) Rapid photosynthetic recovery of snow-covered feather moss and Peltigera lichen during sub-Arctic midwinter warming. Plant Ecology and Diversity 6: 383–392

Bjerke JW (2014): Winter warmer. International Innovation 151: 116–118.

Bokhorst S, Huiskes AHL, Aerts R, Convey P, Cooper EJ, Dalen L, et al. (2013) Variable temperature effects of Open Top Chambers at polar and alpine sites explained by irradiance and snow depth. Global Change Biology 19: 64-74.

Bokhorst S, Metcalfe DB, Wardle DA. Reduction in snow depth negatively affects decomposers but impact on decomposition rates is substrate dependent (2013) Soil Biology and Biochemistry 62: 157-64

Callaghan TV, Jonasson C, Thierfelder T, Zhenlin Y, Hedenås H, Johansson M, Molau U, Van Bogaert R, Michelsen A, Olofsson J, Gwynn-Jones D, Bokhorst S, Phoenix G, Bjerke JW, Tømmervik H, Christensen TR, Hanna H15, Koller EK, Sloan VL (2013) Ecosystem change and stability over multiple decades in the Swedish sub-Arctic: complex processes and multiple drivers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368: 20120488

Klaminder, J. Giesler, R. Makoto K. (2013) Physical mixing between humus and mineral matter found in cryoturbated soils increases short-term heterotrophic respiration rates, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 57: 922–924

Leffler, J. and Welker, J. M. (2013) Long-term increases in snow elevate leaf N and photosynthesis in Salix arctica: response to a snow fence experiment in NW Greenland. Environmental Research Letters 8, 025023

Merbold L, Steinlin C, Hagedorn F (2013) Winter greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from a sub‐alpine grassland. Biogeosciences 10, 3185-3203

Mohn J, Steinlin C, Merbold L, Emmenegger L, Hagedorn F (2013) N2O Emissions and Source Processes in snow-covered Soils in the Swiss Alps. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies 49, 520-531

Preece C & Phoenix GK (2013) Responses of sub-arctic dwarf shrubs to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany 85: 7-15

Robroek, BJM, Heijboer A, Jassey VEJ, Hefting MM, Rouwenhorst TG, Buttler A, Bragazza L. (2013). Snow cover manipulation effects on microbial community structure and soil chemistry in a mountain bog. Plant and Soil, 369, 151–164.

Semenchuk PR, Elberling B, Cooper EJ (2013) Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard. Ecology and Evolution 3: 2586–2599

Soudzilovskaia, N.A., P.M. van Bodegom & J.H.C. Cornelissen (2013). Dominant bryophyte control over high-latitude soil temperature fluctuations predicted by heat transfer traits, field moisture regime and laws of thermal insulation. Functional Ecology 27: 1442-1454.


Aerts, R., T.V. Callaghan, E. Dorrepaal, R.S.P. van Logtestijn & J.H.C. Cornelissen (2012). Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species. Oecologia 170: 809-819

Barbeito, I., Dawes, M., Rixen, C., Senn, J. & Bebi, P. (2012) Factors driving survival and growth at treeline: a 30-year experiment of 92000 conifers. Ecology, 93, 389-401

Bokhorst S, Bjerke JW, Tømmervik H, Preece C, Phoenix GK (2012). Ecosystem responses to climate change: the importance of the cold season. Ambio 41, Suppl. 3. 246-255.

Bokhorst S, Phoenix GK, Bjerke JW, Callaghan TV, Huyer-Brugman F, Berg MP (2012). Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa. Global Change Biology 18: 1152–1162

Bokhorst S, Tømmervik H, Callaghan TV, Phoenix GK, Bjerke JW (2012). Vegetation recovery following extreme winter warming events in the sub-Arctic estimated using NDVI from remote sensing and handheld passive proximal sensors. Environmental and Experimental Botany 81: 18-25.

Makoto K, Klaminder J (2012) The influence of non-sorted circles on species diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in Sub-Arctic Tundra. Polar Biology 35, 1659-1667

Preece C, Callaghan TV, Phoenix GK (2012). Impacts of winter icing events on the growth, phenology and physiology of sub-arctic dwarf shrubs. Physiologia Plantarum 146: 460-472

Rixen C., Dawes M.A., Wipf S. & Hagedorn F. (2012). Evidence of enhanced freezing damage in treeline plants during six years of CO2 enrichment and soil warming. Oikos, 121, 1532-1543.

Timling, I., Dahlberg, A., Walker, D. A., Gardens, M., Charcosset, J. Y., Welker, J. M. and Taylor, D. L. (2012) Distribution and drivers of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities along a bioclimate gradient in the North American Arctic. Ecoscience 3,1-25

Tsyganov, A.N., R. Aerts, I. Nijs, J.H.C. Cornelissen & L. Beyens (2012). Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in subarctic bogs are more sensitive to soil warming in the growing season than in winter: the results of eight-year field climate manipulations. Protist 163: 400-414


Bjerke JW, Bokhorst S, Zielke M, Callaghan TV, Bowles FW & Phoenix GK (2011). Contrasting sensitivity to extreme winter warming events of dominant sub-Arctic heathland bryophyte and lichen species. Journal of Ecology 99: 1481-1488.

Bokhorst S, Bjerke JW, Street LE, Callaghan TV & Phoenix GK (2011). Impacts of multiple extreme winter warming events on sub-Arctic heathland: phenology, reproduction, growth, and CO2 flux responses. Global Change Biology 17: 2817–2830

Callaghan TV, Johansson M, Brown RD, Groisman PY, Labba N, Radionov V, Bradley RS, Blangy S, Bulygina ON, Christensen TR, Colman JE, Essery RLH, Forbes BC, Forchhammer MC, Golubev VN, Honrath RE, Juday GP, Meshcherskaya AV, Phoenix GK, Pomeroy J, Rautio A, Robinson DA, Schmidt NM, Serreze MC, Shevchenko VP, Shiklomanov AI, Shmakin AB, Sköld P, Sturm M, Woo M-K, Wood EF (2011) Multiple effects of changes in Arctic snow cover. Ambio 40: 32–45

Cooper EJ, Dullinger S, Semenchuk P (2011) Late snowmelt delays plant development and results in lower reproductive success in the High Arctic. Plant Science 180: 157–67.

Keuper F., E. Dorrepaal, P.M. van Bodegom, R. Aerts, R.S.P. van Logtestijn, T.V. Callaghan, J.H.C. Cornelissen (2011). A Race for Space? How Sphagnum fuscum stabilizes vegetation composition during long-term climate manipulations. Global Change Biology 17: 2162-2171

Mallik AU, Wdowiak JV, Cooper E (2011) Growth and reproductive responses of Cassiope Tetragona, a circumpolar evergreen shrub, to experimentally delayed snowmelt. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 43: 404–9

Rogers, M. C., Sullivan, P. F., and Welker, J. M. (2011) Evidence of nonlinearity in the response of net ecosystem CO2 exchange to increasing levels of winter snow depth in the High Arctic of Northwest Greenland. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research. 43: 95-106.

Roux-Fouillet P, Wipf S & Rixen C (2011) Long-term impact of ski pistes management on alpine vegetation and soils. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 906-915.


Björkman MP, Morgner E, Björk RG, Cooper EJ, Elberling B, and Klemedtsson L (2010) A comparison of annual and seasonal carbon dioxide effluxes between sub-arctic Sweden and high-arctic Svalbard. Polar Research, 29(1): 75-84

Björkman MP, Morgner E, Cooper EJ, Elberling B, Klemedtsson L, and Björk RG (2010) Winter carbon dioxide effluxes from Arctic ecosystems: An overview and comparison of methodologies. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24: GB3010

Bokhorst S, Bjerke JW, Davey MP, Taulavuori K, Taulavuori E, Laine K, Callaghan TV & Phoenix GK. (2010) Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community. Physiologia Plantarum 140, 128–140

Bokhorst S, Bjerke JW, Melillo J, Callaghan TV & Phoenix GK. (2010) Impacts of extreme winter warming events on litter decomposition in a sub-Arctic heathland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42, 611-617

Morgner E, Elberling B, Strebel D, Cooper EJ. (2010) The importance of winter in annual ecosystem respiration in the high arctic: effects of snow depth in two vegetation types. Polar Research 29: 58–74

Nowinski, N., Taneva, L., Trumbore, S., and Welker, J. M. (2010) Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment. Oecologia. 163, 785-792. doi:10.1007/s00442-009

Rixen C, Schwoerer C & Wipf S (2010) Winter climate change at different temporal scales in Vaccinium myrtillus, an Arctic and alpine dwarf shrub. Polar Research 29, 85-94.

Strebel, D, Elberling B, Morgner E, Knicker HE, Cooper EJ (2010) Cold-season soil respiration in response to grazing and warming in High-Arctic Svalbard. Polar Research 29: 46–57.

Sullivan P.F. (2010) Snow distribution, soil temperature and late winter CO2 efflux from soils near the Arctic treeline in northwest Alaska, Oecologia, 99: pp 65-77

Sullivan, P. F., Arens, S., Sveinbjörnsson, B., and Welker, J. M. (2010) Modeling the seasonality of below ground respiration along an elevational gradient in the western Chugach Mountains, Alaska. Biogeochemistry 101, 61-75. doi:10.1007/s10533-010-9471-0.

Wipf S (2010) Phenology, growth, and fecundity of eight subarctic tundra species in response to snowmelt manipulations. Plant Ecology 207, 53-66.

Wipf S & Rixen C (2010) A review of snow manipulation experiments in Arctic and alpine ecosystems. Polar Research 29, 95–109.